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Raws li kev faib tawm, infrared sensors tuaj yeem muab faib ua thermal sensors thiab photon sensors.

Thermal sensor

Lub thermal detector siv cov khoom tshawb nrhiav kom nqus tau cov hluav taws xob infrared los tsim kom muaj qhov kub thiab txias, thiab tom qab ntawd nrog cov kev hloov pauv hauv qee lub cev.Kev ntsuas cov kev hloov pauv ntawm lub cev no tuaj yeem ntsuas lub zog lossis lub zog nws nqus.Cov txheej txheem tshwj xeeb yog raws li hauv qab no: Thawj kauj ruam yog nqus cov hluav taws xob infrared los ntawm lub ntsuas cua sov kom ua rau kub nce;Cov kauj ruam thib ob yog siv qee qhov ntsuas kub ntawm qhov ntsuas thermal los hloov qhov kub thiab txias mus rau qhov hloov hluav taws xob.Muaj plaub hom kev hloov pauv ntawm lub cev feem ntau siv: hom thermistor, hom thermocouple, hom pyroelectric, thiab Gaolai pneumatic hom.

# Hom Thermistor

Tom qab cov khoom kub-rhiab heev absorbs infrared hluav taws xob, qhov kub thiab txias nce thiab cov nqi kuj hloov.Qhov loj ntawm qhov kev hloov pauv yog proportional rau lub zog nqus infrared hluav taws xob.Infrared detectors ua los ntawm kev hloov qhov tsis kam tom qab ib yam khoom absorbs infrared hluav taws xob hu ua thermistor.Thermistors feem ntau yog siv los ntsuas thermal tawg.Muaj ob hom thermistor: hlau thiab semiconductor.

R(T) = AT-CeD/T

R (T): tus nqi tsis kam;T: kub;A, C, D: qhov sib txawv ntawm cov khoom.

Cov hlau thermistor muaj qhov zoo kub coefficient ntawm kev ua haujlwm, thiab nws cov nqi tiag yog me dua li ntawm ib qho semiconductor.Kev sib raug zoo ntawm kev tiv thaiv thiab qhov kub thiab txias yog qhov pib linear, thiab nws muaj zog kub tsis kam.Nws feem ntau yog siv rau kev ntsuas kub simulation;

Semiconductor thermistors tsuas yog qhov sib txawv, siv rau kev tshawb nrhiav hluav taws xob, xws li lub tswb, lub tshuab tiv thaiv hluav taws, thiab thermal radiator tshawb nrhiav thiab taug qab.

# Thermocouple hom

Thermocouple, tseem hu ua thermocouple, yog cov khoom siv hluav taws xob kuaj pom ntxov tshaj plaws, thiab nws txoj haujlwm ua haujlwm yog cov nyhuv pyroelectric.Ib qho kev sib tshuam uas muaj ob yam khoom siv sib txawv tuaj yeem tsim hluav taws xob hluav taws xob ntawm qhov sib txuas.Qhov kawg ntawm cov thermocouple tau txais hluav taws xob yog hu ua qhov kub kawg, thiab lwm qhov kawg yog hu ua qhov txias kawg.Qhov hu ua thermoelectric effect, uas yog, yog tias ob qhov sib txawv ntawm cov khoom siv hluav taws xob txuas nrog rau hauv lub voj, thaum qhov kub ntawm ob lub pob qij txha sib txawv, qhov tam sim no yuav raug tsim hauv lub voj.

Txhawm rau txhim kho qhov nqus coefficient, cov ntawv nyiaj dub dub tau teeb tsa rau ntawm qhov kawg kub los ua cov khoom siv ntawm cov thermocouple, uas tuaj yeem yog hlau lossis semiconductor.Cov qauv tuaj yeem yog ib txoj kab lossis ib qho chaw zoo li ib lub strip-puab, los yog nyias zaj duab xis ua los ntawm lub tshuab nqus tsev deposition technology los yog photolithography technology.Hom thermocouples feem ntau yog siv los ntsuas qhov kub thiab txias, thiab nyias-film hom thermocouples (muaj ntau lub thermocouples hauv series) feem ntau yog siv los ntsuas hluav taws xob.

Lub sij hawm tas li ntawm lub thermocouple hom infrared detector yog qhov loj, yog li lub sij hawm teb kuj ntev, thiab cov yam ntxwv dynamic kuj tsis zoo.Qhov zaus ntawm kev hloov hluav taws xob nyob rau sab qaum teb yuav tsum feem ntau qis dua 10HZ.Hauv kev siv tswv yim, ntau lub thermocouples feem ntau txuas nrog hauv cov koob los tsim cov thermopile txhawm rau txheeb xyuas qhov siv hluav taws xob infrared.

# Pyroelectric hom

Pyroelectric infrared detectors yog ua los ntawm pyroelectric crystals los yog "ferroelectrics" nrog polarization.Pyroelectric siv lead ua yog ib hom piezoelectric siv lead ua, uas muaj cov qauv tsis-centrosymmetric.Nyob rau hauv lub ntuj lub xeev, qhov zoo thiab tsis zoo nqi chaw zov me nyuam tsis coincide nyob rau hauv tej yam kev taw qhia, thiab ib co ntawm cov nqi ntawm polarized yog tsim nyob rau hauv lub crystal nto, uas yog hu ua spontaneous polarization.Thaum qhov kub thiab txias hloov pauv, nws tuaj yeem ua rau qhov chaw nruab nrab ntawm qhov zoo thiab qhov tsis zoo ntawm cov siv lead ua hloov pauv, yog li tus nqi polarization ntawm qhov chaw hloov raws li.Feem ntau nws nto captures floating nqi nyob rau hauv cov huab cua thiab tswj ib tug hluav taws xob equilibrium lub xeev.Thaum qhov chaw ntawm ferroelectric nyob rau hauv hluav taws xob sib npaug, thaum infrared rays yog irradiated ntawm nws nto, qhov kub ntawm lub ferroelectric (daim ntawv) nce sai heev, lub polarization siv poob sai sai, thiab cov bound nqi txo sharply;thaum lub floating nqi ntawm qhov chaw hloov maj mam.Tsis muaj kev hloov pauv hauv lub cev ferroelectric sab hauv.

Nyob rau hauv ib lub sij hawm luv luv los ntawm qhov kev hloov ntawm polarization siv los ntawm qhov kub thiab txias hloov mus rau hauv hluav taws xob equilibrium lub xeev nyob rau saum npoo dua, tshaj floating nqi tshwm sim nyob rau saum npoo ntawm ferroelectric, uas yog sib npaug rau tso ib feem ntawm tus nqi.Qhov tshwm sim no hu ua cov nyhuv pyroelectric.Txij li thaum nws yuav siv sij hawm ntev rau tus nqi pub dawb los ua kom tsis txhob muaj qhov cuam tshuam rau ntawm qhov chaw, nws yuav siv sij hawm ntau tshaj li ob peb vib nas this, thiab lub sij hawm so ntawm lub spontaneous polarization ntawm cov siv lead ua yog luv heev, li 10-12 vib nas this, pyroelectric siv lead ua tuaj yeem teb rau qhov kub hloov pauv sai.

# Gaolai pneumatic yam

Thaum cov roj absorbs infrared hluav taws xob nyob rau hauv cov xwm txheej ntawm kev tuav ib qho ntim, qhov kub thiab txias yuav nce thiab siab yuav nce.Qhov loj ntawm lub siab nce yog proportional rau lub absorbed infrared hluav taws xob fais fab, yog li lub absorbed infrared hluav taws xob fais fab tuaj yeem ntsuas.Infrared detectors ua los ntawm cov ntsiab cai saum toj no yog hu ua gas detectors, thiab Gao Lai raj yog ib tug raug gas detector.

Photon sensor

Photon infrared detectors siv qee yam khoom siv semiconductor los tsim cov teebmeem photoelectric nyob rau hauv irradiation ntawm infrared tawg los hloov cov khoom hluav taws xob ntawm cov ntaub ntawv.Los ntawm kev ntsuas cov kev hloov hauv cov khoom hluav taws xob, qhov kev siv hluav taws xob ntawm infrared tuaj yeem txiav txim siab.Cov infrared detectors ua los ntawm cov nyhuv photoelectric yog sib sau ua ke hu ua photon detectors.Lub ntsiab nta yog siab rhiab heev, ceev teb ceev thiab siab teb zaus.Tab sis nws feem ntau yuav tsum tau ua haujlwm ntawm qhov kub thiab txias, thiab qhov ntsuas qhov ntsuas kuj yog nqaim.

Raws li lub hauv paus ntsiab lus ntawm kev ua haujlwm ntawm photon detector, feem ntau nws tuaj yeem muab faib ua ib qho khoom siv sab nraud thiab ib qho khoom siv hluav taws xob sab hauv.Sab hauv photodetectors muab faib ua photoconductive detectors, photovoltaic detectors thiab photomagnetoelectric detectors.

# Sab nraud photodetector (PE ntaus ntawv)

Thaum lub teeb tshwm sim nyob rau saum npoo ntawm qee yam hlau, hlau oxides lossis semiconductors, yog tias lub zog photon loj txaus, qhov saum npoo tuaj yeem emit electrons.Qhov tshwm sim no yog sau ua ke hu ua photoelectron emission, uas belongs rau sab nraud photoelectric nyhuv.Phototubes thiab photomultiplier tubes yog hom ntawm photon detector.Cov lus teb ceev ceev ceev, thiab tib lub sijhawm, cov khoom siv photomultiplier tube muaj qhov nce siab heev, uas tuaj yeem siv rau kev ntsuas ib qho photon, tab sis qhov sib txawv wavelength kuj nqaim, thiab qhov ntev tshaj plaws tsuas yog 1700nm.

# Photoconductive ntes

Thaum lub semiconductor absorbs xwm txheej photons, qee cov electrons thiab qhov nyob rau hauv semiconductor hloov los ntawm lub xeev uas tsis yog-conductive mus rau ib tug dawb lub xeev uas muaj peev xwm ua hluav taws xob, yog li ua kom cov conductivity ntawm lub semiconductor.Qhov tshwm sim no hu ua cov nyhuv photoconductivity.Infrared detectors ua los ntawm photoconductive nyhuv ntawm semiconductors hu ua photoconductive detectors.Tam sim no, nws yog hom kev siv ntau tshaj plaws ntawm photon detector.

# Photovoltaic ntes (PU ntaus ntawv)

Thaum cov hluav taws xob infrared yog irradiated ntawm PN kev sib tshuam ntawm qee cov khoom siv hluav taws xob semiconductor, nyob rau hauv qhov kev txiav txim ntawm qhov hluav taws xob hauv PN kev sib tshuam, cov hluav taws xob dawb hauv P cheeb tsam txav mus rau N cheeb tsam, thiab qhov nyob hauv N cheeb tsam txav mus rau qhov chaw. P cheeb tsam.Yog tias PN kev sib tshuam qhib, muaj peev xwm hluav taws xob ntxiv yog tsim los ntawm ob qho kawg ntawm PN junction hu ua photo electromotive force.Cov khoom siv los ntawm kev siv cov duab electromotive force effect yog hu ua photovoltaic detectors lossis junction infrared detectors.

# Optical magnetoelectric ntes

Ib qho magnetic teb yog siv tom qab rau tus qauv.Thaum lub semiconductor nto absorbs photons, cov electrons thiab qhov generated yog diffused rau hauv lub cev.Thaum lub sij hawm diffusion txheej txheem, cov electrons thiab qhov yog offset rau ob qho tag nrho ntawm cov qauv vim cov nyhuv ntawm lub lateral magnetic teb.Muaj qhov sib txawv ntawm ob qhov kawg.Qhov tshwm sim no hu ua opto-magnetoelectric effect.Cov khoom ntes ua los ntawm cov duab-magnetoelectric effect yog hu ua photo-magneto-electric detectors (hu ua PEM li).


Post lub sij hawm: Sep-27-2021